Synagogue– a building that serves for Jewish prayers and assembly. Also referred to as a Shul in Yiddish.
Orthodox Judaism– a form of Judaism that keeps and follows Jewish law for modern times.
Rabbi– a teacher of Torah (Jewish law and liturgy). One does not need a Rabbi present to conduct many Jewish services and ceremonies.
Rosh Hashanah– Jewish New Years and the first of the High Holidays. Usually held in the fall. Practices include festive meal, services across two days, and symbolic removal of sins.
Yom Kippur– Day of Atonement and second High Holiday. Occurs ten days after Rosh Hashanah. Practices include fasting and all day services.
Litvak– a Jew from Lithuania
Kosher– following Jewish dietary laws. Concerned with cleanliness and purity of food, esp. meat. Noun form: Kashrut.
Shochet– a kosher butcher who has to abide the laws around slaughtering and preparing kosher meat.